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INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE NATURAL STONE

“A job well done requires a plan”

Stone coverings present variations in colour and design which are characteristics of a natural product. In order to respect these unique characteristics of natural stone the tiles must be fixed following these simple rules.

A. PREPARING FOR FITTING

1. The surface which is to be covered must be suitable even and clean but above all properly levelled.

2. The work must be planned. It is advisable to place the stone tiles beforehand (slate, quartzite, travertine, …) on the surface where they are to be fixed:

a. Decide the correct distribution of the tones that they have and to visualize the final effect before fitting. It is recommendable to open several boxes and to take out at random the pieces which will be fitted.

b. Decide on the distribution of the pieces to avoid possible differences in size. Some border pieces (mainly slate and quartzite) have a variation at the sides and in thickness which can reach up to 5mm.

3. Choose the pieces to be used for cutting. Set these cut pieces or bevels in areas of least importance to the setting atmosphere, and so avoid wastage.

 

B. FIXING ADHESIVES

a. Preparation of surfaces:

In general, the concrete slab surfaces must be clean of dust, oil and grease, dry and without humidity, clear of traces of dirt such as residue of cement, limescale or paint, which must be completely removed.

The surface must be stable, without cracks once retraction and contraction movements have finished, and it must be in proper mechanical conditions for use. Deviations in flatness must be corrected in advance using suitable levelling products.

b. Recommended levelling materials:

In order to achieve a surface with adequate conditions for tiling, we recommend the following KERAKOLL references or similar:

– KERATECH R30 B N: Self-sealing product for irregular surfaces with a very long setting time. It allows around 30 minus to adjust the level. After this time the material begins to stick. We must wait for 12 hours before beginning to work.

We recommend reading the manufacturer’s technical instructions before use, where the dosage and the preparation of the surface are given in detail.

– KERALEVEL LR B N: KERALEVEL LR B N: Thixotropic levelling product for floor and wall tiling, with a maximum thickness of 2,5 cm. Its main advantage is the quickness of setting: in 2 hours we can begin work on the surface.

We recommend reading the manufacturer’s technical instructions before use, where the dosage and the preparation of the surface are given in detail.

c. Recommended adhesives:

To guarantee the correct fitting of the tiles we recommend the following KERAKOLL references or similar:

– H40 FLOTEX: Adhesive only recommended for floor tiling. The advantage it brings, mainly in large sizes, is that it avoids double sticking and the need to wet the pieces given that it is very thixotropic.

We recommend reading the manufacturer’s technical instructions before use, where the dosage and the preparation of the surface are given in details.

– H40 FLEX: Adhesive recommended for both wall and floor tiling. It requires double-spread. One of its main advantages is its high resistance to slipping (25kg/cm2).

We recommend reading the manufacturer’s technical instructions before use, where the dosage and the preparation of the surface are given in detail.

 

C. INSTALATION

The level of the first piece to be set is that which will mark the thickness of the layer of mortar which we must maintain with the rest of the tiles.

The use of the serrated trowel is obligatory so that the total work surface is covered with adhesive and that no spaces are created which may later cause the corners of the tiles to break.

AZTECA recommends a minimum joint of 1,5 mm. When the tiles are set without a space in the joints, the tiler must take extra care to make sure that the level between each is exactly the same, otherwise dirt will accumulate in the changes of level.

 

D. GROUTING MATERIAL

The grouting material is a cement-based filling mortar which is used for the spaces between tiles.

This is used optionally to fill in the holes which appear on the surface of tiles with a coarse finish (TRAVERTINO NATURAL: SERIE DAKAR CREAM).

The grouting material for the joint is finer in texture than the mortar. To prepare it, it is mixed with water until we get creamy and more fluid consistence. To apply the material, it is spread over the surface of the tiles that are to be treated and immediately after a wet sponge is passed over with good clean water and any residue will be cleaned from the joint while the sponge is repeatedly dipped in clean water.

Dakar Cream:

– If you want to cover the cavities on the surface which are characteristic of this model we recommend the use of an extra fine grouting material (such as FUGABELLA PORCELANA 0-4 from KERAKOLL or similar) in order for the material to penetrate the smallest orifices maintaining the natural look of the stone. Afterwards we reduce the grouting material with a sponge in such a way as to preserve the coarse appearance of the surface.

– If it is the case that we want to leave the surface pores open, apply the grouting material only on the joints between the tiles reducing the level of the material to preserve the dented finish of the borders of the tiles.

 

E. FINISHING PRODUCTS

a. Initial cleaning

After tiling it is important to carry out a good cleaning to eliminate residue of grouting material wastes, residue of material from the surface and any dirt from the work in general. For this operation it is advisable to use a detergent with a slightly acidic action which does not emit toxic fumes and which respects the grouting material and also the person using it, such as Fila Deterdek or similar.

We recommend reading the technical instructions before use, where the way to use, measurements and the preparation of the surface are given in detail.

b. Anti-stain protection

IThis prevents the penetration of water and also the deep absorption of all types of organic stains (drink, food or grease).

This is done by applying one of the following FILA products to be chosen depending on the desired aesthetic effect. :

– FILA FOB(Natural effect): Protects against stains without creating a film and without altering the natural colour of the material. With the surface completely clean and dry (wait for at least 4-5 days after the initial cleaning) apply the product straight with a large brush.

– FILA STONE PLUS (Enhancing effect without shine). This protects against stains without creating a film and enhances the tone and the colour of the material. When the surface is completely clean and dry (wait at least 4-5 days after the initial cleaning), apply the product straight with a large brush completely eliminating any excess after around 10 minutes with paper and cloth.

– FILAWET(wet look with shine): This protects against stains creating a pleasant wet look with shine. When the surface is completely clean and dry (wait for a least 4-5 days after the initial cleaning) apply the product straight evenly with a large brush.

We recommend reading the technical instructions before use, where the way to use, measurements and the preparation of the surface are given in detail.

c. Maintenance

For proper maintenance of the floor tiles it is advisable to use a neutral detergent with high cleaning power such as FilaCleaner or similar.

In cases of intense organic dirt which has accumulated over time, grease, etc., it is advisable to use a special anti-grease detergent such as FILA PS/87 or similar.